Friday, March 20, 2020

Organizational Justice and the Psychological Contract

Organizational Justice and the Psychological Contract Introduction An organization is made up of different groups of people who have come together so as to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization. In the top management of any organization, there is always a Human Resource Manager/ Officer who is concerned about the welfare of the work force of the organization.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Organizational Justice and the Psychological Contract specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Human Resource Manager should treat the employees in the right way so that they can feel part of the organization’s family. Despite the fact that the employees might be competent in their work, good working environment and conditions are necessary for the success of the entire organization (Baldwin, 2006, p.2). Among the essential management tools when it comes to employees is justice. Justice in the organization therefore entails the way the employees comprehend the way t hey are treated by the organizational management in terms of task assignments, awarding of gifts and rewards, promotions and any other matters that affect the employees’ welfare. On the other hand, psychological contract entails the anticipation achieved from the relationship between the employees and the employer. This occurs because both the employee and employer have different expectations and duties to perform as written down in their employment contract. Each of these principles is applicable and used in almost all organizations despite their size, location or any differing factors (Smithson, 2003, p.1). This essay is a case study on the application of both principles in an organization. Analysis of the Scenario It has come to the notice of the company that it is struggling to maintain itself as it is incurring extra costs yet not making adequate profits. In making a fast decision, the company decides to lay off some of the employees immediately. Such decisions are not w orth making especially when you look at the impact they bring to the people who have been laid off from work (Wellin, 2000, p.10). The first mistake this company made was to lay off the workers without a notice of sufficient time as required by the labor laws. It is important that any organization gives a minimum of thirty days notice before terminating the employment contract of any employee. The notice is of benefit to both the employer and employee as it gives the employer sufficient time to organize any payments to be made or find allocations for the position the dismissed employee was holding. At the same time the employee is also given adequate time to adjust psychologically the situation at hand and be able t face it without stress (Baldwin, 2006, p.2). If in any case an employee decides to resign from the job, then a notice of sufficient time is also required to be given to the employer.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help yo u! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another important issue during termination of an employment contract is the method/ medium of communication. In this case, the General Manager decided to send emails to all the employees and later handed over the dismissal letters to his secretary who delivered them to the redundant employees. This was not a good way of communicating as in the first incidence the sent emails obviously caused a lot of panic among the employees. Employees in such a state could not work efficiently hence a disadvantage to the company. The delivery of the envelopes to the employees to be redundant was also not a good way of communicating because this could bring shock on the individuals (Coetzee, 2005, p.12). Therefore, the best medium for communicating such matters is one that does not oppress the employees and prepares them psychologically in advance. Lastly, even after laying off the workers in such unacceptable manner, the company did n ot pay them any remuneration caused by the redundancy. It is a requirement that on top of the dues of an employee, there should be redundancy pay which serves as a reward for the damages caused as a result of the redundancy. The employees however, could not sue the company since the terms of payment in case of redundancy were not included in their employment contract. The senior managers did not present themselves during the laying off process for fear of being confronted by the angry employees due to their unfair treatment. This was not a good way of dealing with the process as it indicated how the company is not concerned about the welfare of their employees (Wellin, 2000, p.8). As a matter of fact, the senior managers should have been present and talked to the employees and maybe even invite a counselor to counsel those who were to be laid off. This would have been a good way of showing concern and treating the employees during this hard time of termination of their employment. C onclusion From the above discussion, it can be concluded that there should be organizational justice in the organization and that both the employees and employers should expect the best from this relationship (Coetzee, 2005, p.14). This company failed in its obligations and responsibility of good treatment to their employees hence oppressing them. Reference List Baldwin, S. (2006). Organizational Justice. Web.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Organizational Justice and the Psychological Contract specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Coetzee. (2005). Organizational Justice. Web. Smithson, J. (2003). Psychological Contract. Web. Wellin, M. (2000). Managing the psychological contract. Web.

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

The Rationale for the Serial Comma

The Rationale for the Serial Comma The Rationale for the Serial Comma The Rationale for the Serial Comma By Mark Nichol Do you employ a serial comma the final comma in a sentence such as â€Å"I bought one apple, two bananas, and three oranges†? If your work for or with a business or organization involves publishing content in print or online, that decision has been made (or should have been made) for you in a style guide, a manual to be followed in production of all the content published by that business or organization. If you determine a business or organization’s style, or you self-publish in print or online, the decision is up to you. In most journalistic print and online publications and in much other online content, the serial comma is omitted. (This omission is also common in British English.) However, in most books and in many other publications published in the United States, it is required. I strongly favor the serial comma. Why? In a sentence such as â€Å"I bought one apple, two bananas and three oranges,† no ambiguity exists. But in â€Å"I ordered ham and eggs, toast and jam and pie and ice cream,† the cavalcade of conjunctions gets confusing, and in contexts in which it’s not as clear which list items might be distinct and which might be linked, the absence of the final comma might require readers to reread the sentence to establish the organization. So, the solution in this case is to use a serial comma when confusion could arise. That means that no-serial-comma publications will print or post â€Å"I bought one apple, two bananas and three oranges† but â€Å"I ordered ham and eggs, toast and jam, and pie and ice cream.† The resulting obvious question is why not, for the sake of consistency, just insert a serial comma in all cases? Another complication is illustrated in this well-known hypothetical statement: â€Å"I dedicate this book to my parents, Ayn Rand and God.† Without the serial comma, the statement could be read as acknowledging four entities: two parents, an author, and a deity. But it could also refer to two parents, one of whom is an author and other of whom is a deity. Again, the presence of the serial comma eliminates the ambiguity. This issue may seem trivial, but the English language is constructed of myriad trivialities that combine into an imperfect system but one that has supported the world’s predominant language. (Yes, twice as many people speak Mandarin as English, but my reference point is global significance.) Commas are an abundant resource, and you can pull any ordinary one out of your comma bucket to serve as a serial comma. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Punctuation category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:70 Idioms with Heart50 Idioms About Roads and Paths50 Plain-Language Substitutions for Wordy Phrases

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 21

Assignment - Essay Example Thus, it would help to allow dripping of the faucet to dissolve the ice and prevent the growing volume of ice to bring about any further pressure against pipe walls. At night, the cooling of air happens at a speed greater than the cooling of water. Then from the surface of the lake, warm water vaporizes and blends with the colder air above it and due to the resulting temperature difference, warm water cools off becoming moisture in the form of droplets that suspend in the air. This suspension is actually the ‘steam fog’ which people often view as mist just on top of the lake’s surface. 3. A man who is 6 ft tall is standing in front of a plane mirror that is 2 ft in height. If the mirror is placed with its bottom edge 4 ft above the floor on a wall that is 5 ft away, how much of his image (i.e. what length of himself) can the man see? (Assume that his eyes are at the top of his head).  If the man moves to a point 10 ft directly away from the wall, with the mirror staying in place, how much of himself can he now see? You must show all of your work, including sketches, to get full credit. Where I and O both refer to the heights of the image and the man, respectively, while ‘di’ and ‘d0’ are the distances of each from the mirror. Using ruler to scale, the reflection the is 2.4 feet away from the mirror, so In this scenario, index of refraction of water is 1.33 @ room temperature whereas a typical crown grass has index of refraction = 1.52, so when Snell’s law n1*sinÃŽ ¸1 = n2*sinÃŽ ¸2 is applied, the angle of refraction (ÃŽ ¸2) would be greater than the angle of incidence

Monday, February 3, 2020

Examine the ways in which attempts are being made to address the Outline

Examine the ways in which attempts are being made to address the problem of cyber bullying in the criminal justice system of England and Wales - Outline Example I will begin by looking at the theories of criminology, the historical/social context of cyberbullying, and analysing the current situation and the possible reforms that will help curb cyberbullying, concluding that cyberbullying should be curbed using stringent measures by law. This essay seeks to examine the attempts that are being made to address the problem of cyber bullying in the criminal justice system of England and Wales. Understanding why an individual chooses to commit a crime can assist the authorities know how to assimilate the criminal.Other theories of criminology attribute crime to the criminal while others state that the community is to blame(WINFREE, &ABADINSKY, 2010). The choice theory, otherwise known as the rational choice theory, is the conviction that people decide to commit crime, considering the possible opportunities ahead, assessing the benefits vis-a vis the penalty and making a choice whether to go on or not to (TIBBETTS, 2012). The positivist theory acts on the proposal that the person committing crime cannot ethically understand how wrong his actions are (TIBBETTS, 2012). This person’s mind has been set in a way that the individual has no ability of making a sensible sane decision to conform to the law. This theory shows how the criminal’s mind works and the impact the thoughts have on the victims. With the massive growth of social media sites, children and the young people are more vulnerable to cyberbullying. With Facebook and Twitter as the most popular networking sites, about 35 million of Facebook and 15 million Twitter users are in the UK. This makes cyberbullying rampant in England and Wales. Cyberbullying in England and Wales is considered an offence under law. In relation to cyber bullying, the choice theory explains the way a criminal’s mind leads to a crime. The bully decides out of his own will to bully an online user to the point that the user,

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Comparative Analysis of Marketing for Nikon

Comparative Analysis of Marketing for Nikon 1. Introduction 1.1 Background With the remarkable improvement of peoples living standard, cameras have become necessities, and owing to their affordable price, many own cameras. Undoubtedly, cameras provide an easy way to record every occasion. There are multiple kinds of cameras can be found everywhere. However, different cameras are designed for a variety of areas and specific purposes. For instance, single lens reflex cameras are designed for amateurs. Nikon and Canon are both worldwide well-known camera producers, whose products are functional, well-designed, and widely used. (Canon, 2010 e) (Nikon, 2010 f) Nikon with its slogan at the heart of the image, is well-known not only for its advanced technology, but for its trustable quality (Nikon, 2010 a). On the other hand, Canon is a celebrated camera producer and now is a global corporation. Its purpose is to be used all over the world (Canon, 2010 a). 1.2 Theory 1.2.1 Market mix Marketing mix, which is described as the 4Ps as well, is the combination of product, promotion, place and price. Related to segmentation, the marketing strategies are usually used on customers in market, with an aim to satisfy their needs and wants, therefore generating profit (Hall D. et al, 2008:75). 1.2.2 Segmentation Market Segmentation is the division of customers according to their individualities. By market segmenting, companies focus on assured groups of consumers and use particular marketing strategies (Hall D. et al, 2008:66). 1.3 Aims The goals of this report are to analyze how the same grade cameras Nikon D90 and Canon 50D make up their marketing mix (product, promotion, place and price) for the products to obtain good sales in China. In addition, the report will illustrate the targeted segments of Canon 50D and Nikon D90. 2. Findings regarding Nikon D90 and Canon 50D 2.1 Product Gillespie (2007:29) mentions that a product can be identified on three major levels namely, core, tangibility and augmentation. Fundamentally, utility and design are the most notable factor for Single-lens reflex cameras to attract clients. A further important issue is after-sales service which must be considered as well. 2.1.1 Product of Nikon D90 Nikon D90 requires a CMOS with 12.3 million effective pixels and the selling point of D90 is its recording function. Its weight is merely 622g, as its body is made of quality plastic. This design makes it feel tout and appressed, it is therefore easier to hold (Dprview, 2010 a). Furthermore, although most companies provide after-sales service, it always takes a long time for repair. Nikon (2010 b) states that, they understand the importance of the products to customers. Therefore, they have been taking great efforts to accelerate after-sales service. 2.1.2 Product of Canon 50D From the other side, Canon 50D is also a successful Single-lens reflex camera. Its selling point is 15.1 million effective pixels. The weight of 50D is 822g since it is made of iron (Dprview, 2010 b). In order to provide immediate and trustworthy supports, Canon gives out the description of 50D and its instruction in the Chinese market. The company emphasizes that After-sales service that ensures safe use of products over a long term is vital to maintaining customers trust in the Canon brand (Canon, 2010 b). 2.1.3 The Comparison of D90 and 50D products Both Nikon D90 and Canon 50D has their own selling point, as mentioned above, Nikon D90 has its advanced recording function, similarly, Canon improves 50D pixels to be 15.1 million, which is also an enhanced technology. Moreover, both companies realize the increasing importance of after-sales service and have been working to improve it to satisfy their customers. 2.2 Promotions 2.2.1 Promotion of Canon 50D Canon promotes 50D chiefly by exhibitions and fairs. By attending multitude of exhibitions, it shows its environmentally conscious products and environmental endeavors to the public. Taking advantage of the exhibitions, Canon attempts to illustrate detailed actions of Canon Environmental Vision (Canon, 2010 c). 2.2.2 Promotion of Nikon D90 Nikon promotes primarily in two ways. One of them is through clubs. Nikon founds many clubs with a significant number of consumers all over the world. It provides several broadband networks and a terrific computer for professional support. Nikon is trying hard to demonstrate the environment-friendly of its products and build a strong relationship with the public (Nikon, 2010 c). Another promotion is discount. Nikon announced that customers, who bought D90 during the period from March 1 to May 31, could receive 1200 RMB back. This is an effective way to encourage people to purchase their products (Nikon, 2010 d). 2.2.3 The comparison of Nikon D90 and Canon 50D Nikon and Canon have a variety of promotions of their products, whereas, they are different from each other. However, there is no denying that, both of them do very well on promotion. 2.3 Place 2.3.1 Place of Nikon D90 The primary distribution of Nikon D90 is retail stores. Nikon authorizes a significant number of traders, including retailers and wholesalers, providing convenience for people to purchase their products (Nikon, 2010e). Wholesalers assist in directly distributing products to retailers and customers. It is difficult to distribute well without wholesalers help, for Nikon is a gigantic corporation. 2.3.2 Place of Canon 50D Canon 50D is sold mainly in retail stores. It is available in a large number of Canon stores around the world. Another way to purchase a Canon 50D is from a direct online store. Customers can review its details and price on the website and make an order easily (Canon, 2010 d). 2.3.3 The Comparison of Nikon D90 and Canon50D places Due to convenience and efficiency, retail stores become popular and common regularly. Consequently, both companies primarily focus on retail distribution. However, Canon provides online stores as well to provide reliable products. 2.4 Price The price of Canon 50D is set around 5580 RMB in Chinese market (Zhongguangchun, 2010 a). On the other hand, the price of Nikon D90 is 6200 RMB (Zhongguangchun, 2010 b). The chart is drawn according to the questionnaire investigation on public SLR amateurs in Guangzhou 2010. It shows different price ranges that people are willing to pay for a single-lens reflex camera. The chart demonstrates that forty-eight percentages are willing to pay for Single-lens reflex camera less than 5000 Yuan. The prices of D90 and 50D are approximately 6000 RMB that is higher than most people anticipated, merely thirty-two percentages of people are willing to pay for a camera at this price. However, there are still many amateurs accept higher price. 2.4.1 The Comparison of Nikon D90 and Canon50D prices The competition of camera marketing is severe. The price of their products is always approximately the same, for both of them keep an eye on each other. However Nikon 90D is a little more expensive, it is hard to clarify that which one is better since both of them have their different selling points and strengths. Therefore, the choice between them depends on what buyers need. 2.5 Segmentations Fundamentally, both Nikon D90 and Canon 50D target amateurs as their primary customers. The people who love photography but are not professionals are the most potential group. A significant feature of these users is that, they take appearance and accessories as the most considerable factors since these are seen as reflection of their identity Another segmenting is gender. There is a contrast between Nikon D90 and Canon 50D. The goal of Nikon D90 is to satisfy female, for which its body is made of quality plastic to reduce its weight. Conversely, Canon 50D is more likely to meet males needs, for which its weight is not necessary to be considered. 3. Conclusion 3.1 Summary To sum up, marketing mix plays a significant role in business and it associates with the market segmenting closely. To obtain a good market share, a company should have a strong and suitable marketing mix to satisfy consumers wants and needs. It has been demonstrated by the findings above, that both market segmentation and marketing mix are essential to business. From these comparisons we can draw the following conclusion that, there are plenty of commons between Nikon D90 and Canon 50D, such as their target customers, however, they are different in some other aspects, such as their promotion. However, both of them gain satisfying market shares. 3.2 Recommendations 3.2.1 For Nikon Although Nikon D90 is sold well in Chinese marketing, the distribution of the D90 could be improved to make it more perfect. As there are lots of fake products in the market of China, Nikon is strongly recommended to open an online shop to avoid this phenomenon 3.2.2 For canon Although 50D has obtained good sales for Canon, it is still necessary to ameliorate the marketing mix. Because the price of 50D is slightly higher than people expected, if discount is offered, Canon 50D could be sold better in China.

Friday, January 17, 2020

The use of recombinant technology can only benefit humans

Recombination is a way in which meiosis produces new combinations of genetic information. During synapsis, chromatids may exchange parts with other chromatids, leading to a physical exchange of chromosome parts; thus, genes from both parents may be combined on the same chromosome, creating a new combination. Recombinant DNA technology is a series of techniques in which DNA fragments are linked to self-replicating forms of DNA to create recombinant DNA molecules. These molecules in turn are replicated in a host cell to create clones of the inserted segments. I think that recombinant technology only benefits humans as it allows us much greater control over genetic manipulation, which we can then use to our advantage. Indge, Rowland and Baker (2000) summarises some of the ways that recombinant technology has been beneficial to humans; > Genetically engineered micro organisms- large amounts of insulin and human growth hormone can be produced cheaply. > Genetically modified plants- Desirable plants can be transferred from an organism to a crop plant. > Genetically modified animals- human proteins such as haemoglobin and blood-clotting factors, are already produced in the milk of transgenic cows, goats and sheep. > Human gene therapy- gene therapy involves inserting a ‘normal' gene into an organism's body to correct a genetic disorder. ; Mapping human chromosomes (the Human Genome Project)- scientists in over 1000 laboratories around the world are contributing to the Human Genome Project. Their aim is to create a map of all human chromosomes, identifying the precise location of every gene. This will help to develop new gene therapy treatments. The ability to clone genes through the use of recombinant technology is a big advantage to humans. The production of human insulin is now done on a very large scale and benefits many thousands of diabetics. Kent (2000) states that human insulin made by recombinant DNA technology produces fewer side effects than insulin prepared from cow or pig pancreatic extracts, previously the main source of insulin. But diabetics are not the only people who are benefiting from recombinant technology. Jones and Jones (1999) show that considerable advances in genetic engineering are making gene therapy possible. Gene therapy is intended to correct inherited disorders, such as cystic fibrosis, which are caused by a defective gene. If the ‘correct' gene could be inserted into the affected person's cells, then they should be free of the disease. Recombinant technology is also beneficial to humans when it comes to crop production. Genetic engineering is used to produce pest resistant varieties of crop, which means that fewer pesticides would have to be used on the crops and they would produce a greater yield. Jones and Jones (1999) say that tomatoes have been produced containing genes that result in them remaining fresh for much longer than usual after picking. This makes it much easier, and therefore cheaper, to transport them form grower to sale point, so they have a much longer shelf life. But genetically modified crops can also cause problems in the environment. If crops are produced containing a gene making them resistant to herbicides and are then sprayed with the herbicide to kill weeds, this gene might then somehow spread to wild plants and affect the balance of the ecosystem. Although recombinant technology is of great use to humans when it comes to gene therapy and genetically modified crops it can also be a threat if used in the wrong way. Jones and Jones (1999) state that the techniques of genetic engineering could be used deliberately to create new organisms that could infect and kill humans. There are, of course, already many organisms that can do this, but little use had been made on biological warfare. About half of the nations of the world signed a treaty in 1972 pledging not to produce biological weapons of any kind. However, the concern remains, and it is certainly possible that new, highly dangerous forms of infectious organisms could be used deliberately.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

The Glass Menagerie By F. Scott Fitzgerald - 1267 Words

The Glass Menagerie is arguably the most symbolic and deep plays ever written. The Glass Menagerie isn’t just a story of Laura’s disability, it has a deeper meaning behind it, and it can be easily overlooked by mediocre minds. Although the story revolves around the Wingfield family, Tennessee Williams throws in symbolism that corresponds with his childhood. In a way, he found closure for the loss of his sister Rose through writing The Glass Menagerie. One of the symbols is the play that holds a different meaning for each of the characters is the fire escape. As the play evolves the fire escape brings out Laura’s, Tom’s, and Amanda’s true desires. OR The fire escape like the other symbols hold a deeper understanding of the characters, and although Tennessee didn’t admit that he wrote this story off of his own experiences as a child having dealt with similar circumstances, it’s obvious it was written about his childhood. So, the symbolism also makes a deeper understanding of Tennessee himself and the kind of life he lived. As I said the fire escape shows the desire of escape, the realization of danger within the Wingfield home, and the characters’ true qualities are brought out by the fire escape. For Laura, the fire escape is symbolic to show how interdependent she is on other people once she slipped and fell. It signified that she can’t even go outside alone without getting hurt. Laura always needs someone to be with her. The real world is too much for Laura; she couldShow MoreRelatedThe Glass Menagerie By F. Scott Fitzgerald1267 Words   |  6 PagesThe Glass Menagerie is arguably the most symbolic and deep plays ever written. The Glass Menagerie isn’t just a story of Laura’s disability, it has a deeper meaning behind it, and it can be easily overlooked by mediocre minds. 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It is stated by the narrator, It was after we started with Gatsby toward the house that the gardener saw Wilson s body a little way off in the grass, and the holocaust was complete† (Fitzgerald 162). This is one of manyRead MorePoverty Is A Symbol Of Hope And Prosperity1863 Words   |  8 Pagesthoughts and ideas using emotional storylines for everyone to read. Through the literature that exposed these problems to the world, authors such as F. Scott Fitzgerald and Arthur Miller had removed the curtains over the people’s eyes and showed the ent irety of America. In relation to curtains and Arthur Miller, the American dramas, such as The Glass Menagerie and A Streetcar Named Desire, became quite popular during the twentieth century. 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